Wolbachiaare one of the most ubiquitous obligate intracellular maternally inherited bacteria that have been found in several arthropod groups.Wolbachiabehave as areproductive parasite by manipulating host reproduction to enhance their vertical transmission. Their reproductive modification and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) has received attention for use in applied strategies targeting economically important insect pests and disease vectors. The genetic mechanism of incompatibility in the cytoplasm has been discovered to be due to the asynchrony of the male and female pronuclei at the initial stage of mitosis. Genetic investigations using molecular tools have yielded two Wolbachiagenes (ftsZ anddnaA).It is opined that both comparative and post genomics analysis will facilitate the development of genetic transformation system.There has been a significant increase in the study of this parasite of recent. In this paper, the phylogeny, genetics, cytoplasmic inheritance and genomics of Wolbachiaare reviewed. The article aimed at reviewing the contemporary knowledge of the parasite; identify the research gaps and future challenges in the study of these bacteria.
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